Melanoma - by its nature a malignant tumor , a skin disease that develops from pigment-cells (called melanocytes), distinguished by their color and having the ability to produce melanin.Location melanoma most often in open areas of skin that are exposed to direct sunlight.Typically, this type of tumor can be seen on the legs, torso, arms and face.Thus melanoma occurs more frequently in women than in men.As a rule, women, melanoma is found on the skin of legs, men - on the body. Less is formed in other parts of the body: the mucosa, the retina, vagina and anus.By their nature, melanoma occurs as some kinds of nevi and absolutely clean area of skin.
content of the article:
- how serious melanoma?
- From what appears melanoma?
- What people are more prone to the appearance of melanoma?
- Melanoma: Melanoma symptoms
- : signs
- Medical manifestation of melanoma.
- Melanoma: diagnostics
- treatment of melanoma
- Pathological options
- melanoma Melanoma Skin:
how serious melanoma?
With this kind of disease to be trifled with.Every year the number of melanoma increases.Since 1950, the incidence increased by as much as 600%.According to the WHO, around the world each year are registered about 48 000 deaths are directly caused by melanoma.
From what appears melanoma?
No matter how trite it sounds, but by far the most popular factor, because of which there is a melanoma is excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.So the most important factors, due to which there is a melanoma, it is:
- high solar radiation;
- Prolonged use of the solarium.
Melanoma, like most cancers, is caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation.In this case, it increases the likelihood of violation cells at the genetic level that immediately can lead to tumors.
What people are more prone to the appearance of melanoma?
- If one of your close relatives have experienced this disease.A particularly high risk if the tribe with melanoma experienced more than two people.In these cases, the risk is greatly increased.
- If you have previously been diagnosed with melanoma or any other had skin cancer.
- If you are in old age.As a rule, the elderly risk of melanoma occurs much more frequently than others.
- If nevus was injured.And the more time injured, the greater the risk.
- If the moles on your body more than 50 pieces.
symptoms in most cases determine the type of nevus, without having the necessary equipment, or without conducting special laboratory tests, it is impossible.Therefore it is important to notice and to adopt a mole that may characterize cancer.Among these changes:
- Increasing the size.
- itching sensation in the nevus.
- Bleeding from the surface of the nevus.
- If it spots, the loss of hair from the spot area.
- Changing the shape of a nevus.
Medical manifestation of melanoma.
What symptoms indicate a transition from benign to malignant melanoma pigment?
- Strengthening or weakening of the pigment.
- growth of the spot and its hardening.
- Development nonpigmentary and pigmented growths ray that come from pigment spots in different directions.
- appearance of stagnation on the perimeter spots and the appearance of redness.
Rarely a symptom is swelling of the lymph nodes in the spots, while lentigo or nevus does not increase and even in some cases, may be reduced in size and color pigmentation.The most common signs of the transition from papilloma to melanoma are increasing and seal.If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately for advice.
Do not leave everything to chance and not self-medicate.Another case is the appearance of pigmented spots near which increases small nodular tumors.Most often they are also pigmented, but there are also non-pigmented.It is necessary to allocate more other initial symptoms that sometimes occur simultaneously with other symptoms, but can also occur independently of them.These characteristics include the increase or decrease pigmentation.
In this case, attach special importance nonpigmentary or pigment radial growths (of them mentioned above), which diverge from the primary tumor in different directions, with the emergence of spreading melanoma and normal skin tissue connections.That is, in some cases, they contribute to the increase of the tumor.A large group of tumors appear, so to speak, for no apparent reason.Initially, a conventional sealing benign pigmented formation, papilloma, wherein the long time period may be suppressed signs of visible growth or pigmentation changes.
With strong progression of disease is metastasis of melanoma.When hematogenous metastasis usually affects the liver and lungs, in the terminal phase - it can be anywhere in the body.
The very first step is the direct examination of the oncologist.To make a diagnosis, physicians should conduct histological and cytological studies.The prevalence of the process to conduct research "sentinel" lymph node and additional methods.Among other methods of diagnosis of melanoma release: scintigraphy, computed tomography, ultrasound, and so on. D.
Treatment of melanoma
Treatment of melanoma depends on the stage of its development.
If this is not the primary focus of metastases, in this case, used surgery and make the wide excision of the hearth.In this case it is necessary to cut 1-2 cm larger than the hearth.This depends on the depth of sprouting in the skin melanoma.Sometimes, after excision of such defects are formed requiring overlapping flaps of skin taken from other parts of the body.This is especially true cores person - the face and extremities.
If there is a presence of melanoma metastases in the lymph nodes, then spend an additional excision of lymph nodes, followed by treatment with anticancer drugs and immunotherapy.If obvious signs of lymph node involvement is not, but the suspicion is there, it is carried out the so-called method of identifying "sentinel" lymph node.Regional lymph node, in turn, receives the first lymph, which goes from the zone of the tumor and is the first place where the metastasis develop.If the detection metastases "sentinel" lymph node was inconclusive, then the probability of lymph node metastases in other, usually does not exceed 2-3%.
Exploring the state of "sentinel" lymph nodes, doctors with high accuracy can judge the state of the rest of the lymph nodes, sparing many patients from these operations and complications from them.If surgical treatment is not possible, the alternative is the most common method of chemotherapy.Chemotherapy for each patient selected individual scheme, while taking into account all the nuances and criteria.
number of treatments of chemotherapy depends on the tolerance of chemotherapy by the patient and the disease.After a minimum of number of cycles of chemotherapy performed control tests, the results of which the evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy.More use in the treatment of radiation therapy.By supplying a small tumor dose while the surrounding tissue and organs are not irradiated.This reduces the incidence of side effects and potential complications.
Pathological variants of melanoma
In turn, the options for malignant tumors varies depending on the place of origin.
- Surface spreading.
- Melanoma retina.
- Melanoma of soft tissues.
- Melanoma mucous membranes.
prevention of melanoma. It's all much easier.It should follow a few tips and significantly reduced the risk of disease.
- timely removal constantly injured nevi (moles).
- limited number of hits of ultraviolet radiation on the skin.
- Avoid tanning beds.
- No self-medication, moxibustion damaged moles, self removal of various types of tumors (moles, warts).
Day of melanoma.
annually in many countries held "Day of melanoma," or, as it is called "the day of diagnosis of melanoma."In 2011, he held 16 May.On that day, anyone can get to almost any clinic consultation on birthmarks and their removal.About melanoma diagnosis is available, talk to each pre-recorded hotline.