- cause of the disease symptoms
- Features and stage
- Diagnosis and treatment
Ewing's sarcoma - a malignant tumor that arises from bone tissue.Strikes are usually young and male adolescents from 5 years old, but there are cases of a 30-year-old.The most favorite places of settlement formation - the lower sections of tubular long bones, pelvic bones, ribs, scapula, vertebrae and clavicle.Usually about 70% of all cases of the lower extremities and pelvis (e.g., Kaposi's femur).
main differences Ewing's sarcoma: an aggressive and rapid growth, early development of metastases.It is assumed factors influencing the occurrence of the disease:
- the age of 5-30 years;
- male sex;
- European race;
- genetic predisposition or disorder;
- bone injury;
- benign bone tumors;
- anomalies in the development of the urogenital system and bone.
Young people under 20 are affected hip, the shoulder, the tibia and fibula.People mature susceptible defeat sarcoma in the pelvis, shoulder blades,
The symptoms of Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Nespitsificheskie symptoms: fatigue, weakness, intoxication.But these symptoms can be in many other diseases, so early diagnosis based on symptoms is extremely difficult.
- Common symptoms: anemia, weakness, fatigue, cachexia (anorexia and further weight loss), fever up to 38o.
- there is pain when an education in the periosteum.For Ewing's sarcoma characterized by the following features:
- At the beginning of the disease intensity is weak, which increases as the disease progresses.
- pains are intermittent, can suddenly appear and for some time to fade and disappear.
- At rest, the pain continued to disturb.
- At night, the pain intensified, leading to insomnia.
- Change cloth.There is pain in palpation of tissues in the area of education, redness of the skin, swelling of soft tissue, bone deformities, local veins, a pronounced vascular pattern, the tumor is warm to the touch.If the tumor site near the joint, there may be difficulty in movement.
- frequent pathological fractures that occur due to the destruction of bone tissue.
- regional lymphadenitis.Near tumor enlarged lymph nodes.
Features and stage
sarcoma has its own characteristics, which depend on its location:
- Localization on the leg leads to disruption of gait and lameness.
- Location vertebrae cause radiculopathy, myelopathy, ischemic compression to reduce muscle weakness and reflexes, paralysis of limbs, disturbance of the functioning of the pelvic organs (or fecal incontinence).
- tumor spread to the soft tissues and bones of the chest causing respiratory failure, hemoptysis, pleural effusion.
Metastasis of cancer spread rapidly and many of the patients at the time of diagnosis already have multiple metastases in different organs and tissues.
Metastases spread through the bloodstream, through the lymphatic system, in the retroperitoneal space, on the mediastinum.The main route of penetration of metastases - blood.With metastases penetrate the blood first thing in the lungs, bone, bone marrow.
Today distinguish two stages: localized and metastatic.When there is only one localized tumor focus with the possible spread of sarcoma of the surrounding muscles and tendons.Metastatic determined when foci arise in other organs.When doctors are diagnosing more extended classification:
- 1 stage.A small degree on the surface of the bone.
- Stage 2.The growth of tumor deep into the bone.
- Stage 3.Metastases in the surrounding tissues and organs;
- stage 4.Distant metastases.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases
basic method - radiography.Computed tomography or MRI are more informative and can notice even the smallest metastases.To detect the presence of lesions in the bone marrow using bone marrow biopsy material.In addition to these there are a number of other studies: microscopic, molecular genetic, immunohistochemical, ultrasound, bone scan, positron emission tomography, polymerase chain reaction, angiography.
treatment of Ewing's sarcoma include:
- Conservative methods - chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation and bone marrow.
- Surgery - complete excision of Education and the surrounding tissues or partial removal in the impossibility radical removal.
Usually, treatment is carried out comprehensively, using all possible methods.