- Causes of
Osteoporosis is a pathology resulting from a violation mineral metabolism in the body, as a result of which changes the normal structurebone.In this disease, depression bone substance most pronounced in those parts of the skeleton, which are subjected to severe mechanical stress, so osteoporosis of the hip is a huge problem of modern medicine.
main difficulty, disturbing patients and doctors who carry out the treatment of osteoporosis hip fractures become his image - the damage can occur even with small injuries or lifting cargo.Besides bone lesions that form the hip joint (femur and pelvis), the process of bone changes may affect the body and transverse processes of the vertebrae, ribs, bones, skull, shoulder bones.The most common trauma on the background of systemic osteoporosis affects:
- femur - fracture develops surgical and anatomical neck, immobilizes the patient;
- humerus - intraarticular fractures occur, limiting the functi
- vertebral bodies - they are developing compression fractures, which can go undetected for a long time.
Causes of osteoporosis bone
Disorders of mineral metabolism, against which develops osteoporosis of the hip bones, evidence of the appearance:
- reduce production of female sex hormones, estrogen in the body;
- diseases of the endocrine glands - thyroid disease, diabetes, disorders of hormone in the pituitary and adrenal glands;
- conditions arising during immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation;
- age-related changes;
- malnutrition and inadequate intake of vitamin D and calcium;
- patient's bad habits - smoking, alcohol abuse, substance abuse;
- operation performed on the genitals in women;
- drug therapy in the appointment of diuretics, steroids, anticonvulsants, anticoagulants of direct action;
- genetic disorders (hereditary factors).
suspect the possibility of osteoporosis, hip fractures can be to not always, but in the presence of precipitating factors the probability of detection of symptoms increases several times.
How do you know about the disease?
The fact that the patient develops osteoporosis of the hip joint (the bones that form this joint), it is possible in the case revealed the impact of trigger factors and causes such symptoms:
- pain in the bones of the skeleton - the vertebrae, sacrum, ribs;
- seizures in mice skeletal, especially at night;
- change of posture (slouching), appearing in a patient after 40 years;
- marked reduction of growth - the reason for this phenomenon are vertebral compression fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine.
Before you start treatment of osteoporosis and bone of the hip joint in the body of the system, you must perform a complete examination, which should include:
- densitometry - definition of bone density;
- radiography and tomography of bones to clarify the main centers of depression in the bone;
- laboratory tests - determination of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, estrogen, parathyroid hormone, thyroxine, insulin, hydrocortisone and its derivatives.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis can only be made in detecting changes in bone density of more than 2.5 degrees, to reach this boundary indicator diagnose osteopenia.
Treatment should begin even before the injury ..
In the case where the patient's disease is detected, treatment should begin even before the injury - otherwise the high likelihood of slowly healing fractures.All activities should be directed at restoring the broken structure of the affected bone and prevent further progression of changes.All therapeutic measures prescribed to treat osteopenia and osteoporosis of the hip joint, should be carried out under the supervision of densitometry.
this purpose can be assigned:
- antiresorptive agents (substances which inhibit the destruction of the bone structure) - calcitonin, bisphosphonates.Timely administration of these drugs to patients who suffer from osteoporosis of the hip joint, to stop or slow down the progression of changes in the structure of bones and potentiates the restoration of bone tissue;
- anabolic drugs - drugs testosterone, teriparatide, raloxifene.These drugs activate the recovery process of bone formation;
- hormone therapy - estrogen combined appointment, progestins, androgens.These drugs address the underlying causes of osteoporosis, and should be given hormone replacement therapy for patients in the waning reproductive function, menopause and menopause;
- calcium supplements - calcitonin Miakaltsik.These drugs inhibit the breakdown of bone and help eliminate the pain invariably arise against fracture;
- vitamin D and its metabolites.
Preventive measures Preventive measures
who are appointed under the threat of the disease is much more effective than a comprehensive treatment of osteoporosis, appointed after the occurrence of fracture.For prophylaxis must be balanced diet with increasing content in the diet of foods rich in calcium and phosphorus.Be sure to decrease the cholesterol content in the diet.
judicious regime change physical activity, which should provide for exercises that strengthen the muscular system of the body - thus it is necessary to exclude sports-threatening injuries.Mandatory rejection of bad habits (smoking, alcohol), and increased residence time in the sun - phototherapy stimulates the production of vitamin D in the body of the patient.
Complex preventive measures - the key to successful treatment of osteoporosis of the hip joint in patients of any age.