Hereditary predisposition for diabetes type 2 diabetes is more important than for diabetes type 1.The root cause of insulin resistance - a genetic defect of insulin receptors in the cells.
However, any predisposition is not necessarily realized - it depends on other factors.
In general, the risk of diabetes type 2 diabetes fall:
- • People who are overweight (obese);
- • people with a family history (who have relatives with diabetes);
- • people with indications of impaired glucose tolerance in the past;
- • women who had diabetes during pregnancy;
- • women who have given birth to large children (weighing more than 4-4.5 kg).
So, in the first place in this list is overweight.Indeed, obesity is considered to be the most important risk factor in relation to type 2 diabetes;even without a family history, he is a necessary and sufficient condition for the development of diabetes.
On the one hand, diabetes mellitus type II develops more than 10% of obese individuals;other - about 80% of patients wit
degree of obesity (and the fact of his presence) define a strictly mathematical way - by body mass index (BMI).To calculate this index, it is necessary to weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared.For example, for a person having a height of 1.75 m and weight 90 kg BMI is equal to 90 (kg): 1.752 (m) = 90 (kg): 3.0625 (m2) = 29.4 (kg / m2).
This value is in the range of 25-30, indicating the presence of excess weight, but it is not obese.The diagnosis of "obesity I degree" is put at a BMI of 30-34 kg / m2;II degree - a BMI of 35-39 kg / m2;III degree - a BMI of 40 kg / m2 or more.
degree of obesity (and in general the fact of his presence) can also be determined by how the actual weight exceeds the ideal.Methods of calculating the ideal weight a lot, but the most simple formula - a "growth minus 110".For example, for a person 170 cm in height normal weight is 60 kg of 10%, ie, 54-66 kg.If you exceed the ideal weight by up to 30% talk about excess body weight, exceeding it at 31-50% corresponds to obesity I degree, 99 to 50% - II degree, and 100% and more - III degree.
If we talk about obesity as a risk factor, it is more important than the degree of obesity is type.There are only two types: 1) android (the trunk, "male" type "apple") and 2) ganoid ("female", peripheral type "pear").When android type of fat is stored mainly in the upper half of the body, on her stomach, face and internal organs (visceral fat), and on the legs and buttocks fat enough.This increases the amount of fat cells, the number of them are not significantly altered.This type of obesity is rare in children.When gynoid type of fat is more evenly distributed, with a predominance in the buttocks and thighs.With this type of obesity increased number of fat cells and often - from early childhood.
type of obesity is also possible to calculate - the ratio of waist to hip circumference (T / B): the android obesity T / B is greater than 1.0 for men and 0.85 for women more;gynoid obesity at the T / B is less than 1.0 for men and less than 0.85 for women.