Methods of studying the endocrine glands

in endocrinology great importance remote functional diagnostics endocrine glands, allowing together with anatomical impairment to study their functional changes.Each endocrine gland has its own tests, but their use often gives these conflicting results, many clinicians have opposed them negatively.These methods can not claim absolute evidence and are mainly used along with other methods as an additional version of the study.More exact information about the functionality of any cancer is obtained by studying the dynamics of the exchange of substances, which neuroendocrine unit is an important link.

idea of ​​the function of organs and glands involved in carbohydrate metabolism, the study gives glycogen.It is known that carbohydrate metabolism in the body is affected: liver , pituitary , insular apparatus of the pancreas, adrenal glands, thyroid gland.Their defeat caused the need to study the glycemic curve in patients, which helps make the correct diagnosis.No laboratory studies in endocrinology

will not solve the diagnosis: it only reinforces the clinical data.

today in the study of the carbohydrate metabolism method is widely used a double load, comprising ingesting glucose solution (an hour successively 30 g glucose).In case of violation of carbohydrate metabolism re-load glucose cause an increase in blood sugar levels even more patient, and in two hours he will not fall below the norm.In a healthy person does not cause such deviations.

important method for studying disorders of the endocrine system, used primarily in patients with lesions of the thyroid gland - the study of basal metabolism.Increased exchange observed in hyperthyroidism, some low - hypothyroidism, much lower - with myxoedema.This method is of particular importance in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

method for studying the function of the thyroid gland by radioactive iodine is more important than the study of basal metabolism.When thyrotoxicosis dramatically increases the ability of the thyroid gland to accumulate iodine and hypothyroidism absorption of this element of the thyroid gland is greatly reduced.The main condition for carrying out such a study - a month before the start of the patients can not take any iodine preparations (even to put iodine on the skin).

Methods used in the evaluation of patients with suspected endocrine diseases, and are based on an analysis of salt metabolism.For example, the calcium content in the blood is below normal (less than 9 - 11 mg%) is characteristic of tetany, a significant increase in its - for parathyroid adenomas.The level of inorganic phosphorus in serum composition at tetany increased (rate 3 - 4 mg%).Hypophosphatemia (low phosphorus levels) observed in parathyroid osteodystrophy.Phosphatase blood in the presence of the disease usually increase.When

adrenal insufficiency detected low chloride content in the blood and an increase in urine and the presence of potassium in the blood increases in urine - decreases.In addition, adrenal insufficiency is characterized by a decrease in blood sugar levels, increase insulin sensitivity and decrease adrenaline, glycemic curve flattening, decreased 17-ketosteroids and vitamin C in the urine.Hyperplastic processes in the adrenal cortex contribute to the increase in the content of the urine 17-ketosteroids.

Determination in urine pregnandiol amount, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, a woman also has some value.Since the amount of three months of pregnancy pregnandiol in the urine increases, and before delivery is significantly reduced.When tumors of the adrenal cortex its content in the urine rises sharply, and may be up to 57 milligrams per day.

In gynecological practice is of great importance to study the contents of estrone in the urine.This is especially important to confirm a possible estrogenic hyperfunction of the ovaries in women suffering from hemorrhagic metropatiey.

Tags: pituitary, adrenal glands, liver, thyroid, endocrine glands