Diabetes chronic disease, which leads to a violation of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism as a result of a lack of the hormone insulin or misuse of its action.


Fig.eleven.Location pancreas relative to other organs. realized this fact, and armed with the first and most primitive anatomical information, look at the structure and function of the pancreas, which in Latin is called medical "pancreas".

Fig.12.Pancreas.Marked "islands" and circles of white and black colors showing alpha and beta cells . It is to the left of the stomach in the upper abdomen and extends to the spleen;its position can be represented, if you hold a hand on the left side under the ribs to the navel (Fig. 1.1).The pancreas secretes the head, body and tail.In functional terms, it consists of two independent parts: the basic weight, secretes digestive (or pancreatic juice, and the so-called "islets of Langerhans", which account for only 1-2% of total body (Fig. 1.2). These islandsdiscovered in the nineteenth century German physiologist Langerhans, and perform endocrine function, since each contains eighty to two hundred hormonally active cells released into the blood hor

mones. These cells, depending on the secretion of substances are divided into four types - alpha, beta, delta and PP cells. The alpha cells generate glucagon, beta cells - insulin, delta-cells - gastrin and somatostatin in PP-cells - pancreatic polypeptide. Most of each island in the body and tail of the pancreasdeliver the beta cells (85%); the share of the alpha-cells account for 11% and delta cells -3% and PP-cells - 1%. We note one important fact: together with insulin-producing beta cells of the so-called C-peptide ("CE" -peptide), which does not have the properties of insulin and interesting to us only because it is made exactly the same as insulin (ie,each molecular chain of insulin is necessary chain of C-peptide).This fact is useful to us in the future.

What are the functions of hormones that produce islets of Langerhans?First, we note that the substances produced by the delta cells and PP-cells, will not be considered, as in the context of this blog they are immaterial.Next, we have to remember that is used in everyday life, the term "sugar" is not accurate;In fact, there are many types of sugars that differ in their chemical structure.Some of them are complex molecules, and such sugar is called "polysaccharides" or complex sugars;the structure of other more simple and they are called "monosaccharides" or simple sugars.So, glucagon is produced by the alpha cells, contributes to the collapse of the complex sugar glycogen and the formation of a simple sugar glucose.In the form of glycogen stored sugar "in reserve" in some of our organs - the liver and muscles;Glucose is - this grape sugar, one of the simplest sugars, and further, if otherwise stated, we will use these two terms, glucose and sugar, as the concept of fully equivalent.It is in the form of glucose sugar present in our blood.

dealt with glucagon and sugars, consider the function of insulin.However, it is useful to recall another important fact about our body, namely, our body is composed of cells.The cells are different in function and mind - for example, spherical, oval, flat, cylindrical, etc.Cells are the same shape and function form a specific tissue of the human body - for example, the brain, blood vessel wall, liver or muscle.Despite the variety of cells between them have something in common: they all need power.We move our body operates continuously (even when we sleep), and it means that we are continuously expend energy.Restores energy is at the cellular level, blood cells deliver oxygen and nutrients, one of which - very important!- It is glucose.If we compare our cells petrol motor, which constantly burns fuel (the car was moving) the glucose is precisely thereby gasoline supply our biological motor.

However, remember that gasoline gets into a car engine using a fairly complex system - carburetor, which injects the fuel portion of the combustion chamber.In the absence of gasoline in the carburetor chamber does not fall, and in case of faulty carburetor - maybe fall, but not in the quantity of what you need.Exactly the same troubles occur with glucose transported in blood, its molecules are not themselves able to penetrate the cell motor.The role of the carburetor - not only the mechanical and chemical - in this case plays insulin.

This situation can be described as another way.Imagine a cell as a closed volume provided with a certain amount of door-passages.Around this volume concentrated glucose molecules that could get inside when the doors were opened - but the doors are locked.Insulin molecules are precisely the key that unlocks the door of the cell to glucose molecules.Recall that insulin with glucose carried by the blood;So, in the usual case (ie a healthy person) about insulin cells is sufficient to unlock the doors to glucose.

What happens in a situation where little or no insulin at all?We describe this painting as follows: Stage 1 - we absorb food;Step 2 - complex carbohydrates, trapped in the food composition in the stomach and intestines, are processed into monosaccharides, mainly glucose;Stage 3 - glucose is absorbed through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, but in cells without insulin (with rare exceptions) misses.As a result, firstly, the cells begin to starve, and secondly, the level of sugar in the blood rises above the allowable, there comes a state of hyperglycemia .

first circumstance leads to weight loss, then to degeneration, the gradual extinction and, indeed, starvation, and death from starvation protracted process that takes several weeks, and in this case threatening to the patient;he will die early from a diabetic coma caused by a second circumstance hyperglycemia, excess ketone bodies.Subsequently, this process will be described in detail in a moment, consider the consequences of abnormally high blood sugar levels.Just above
reservation had been made: glucose into cells without insulin (with rare exceptions) do not fall.The exception are the so-called insulin-independent tissues which take sugar from blood regardless of the presence of insulin, but if too much sugar, it penetrates into the cloth in excess.

see what kind of fabric.First of all, brain, nerves and nerve cells.When: elevated levels of blood sugar is the first sense of heaviness in the head, fatigue, fast.fatigue, impaired attention.The lens of the eye gets too glucose without the help of insulin;resulting in elevated blood sugar when the lens becomes cloudy, and it seems as if the sight of smoke .Erythrocytes and the intima of blood vessels and are insulin dependent tissues, and when the excess sugar enters the cells lining blood vessels, can have extremely unpleasant complications in the future.(Recall that the red blood cells by the way - it's red blood cells that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide; they accumulate sugar, which is closely associated with hemoglobin).

addition to the above phenomena observed another sugar begins eliminated via the kidneys in the urine.This is an alarming signal, and it means that the body is trying to protect themselves from excess sugar.

If you notice these signs, immediately necessary to address to the endocrinologist.Get tested, get tested in the clinic.Muscovites there is a great medical holding centers that are doing the most detailed and accurate examination.Grateful reviews see clinic by patients, say the high level of equipment and advanced inspection methods.Do not start the disease, otherwise it can lead to late complications, some (eg, ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia) may require emergency medical care.

Tags: insulin islets of Langerhans, the pancreas, the signs of diabetes