1. cause of all complications of diabetes - increased blood sugar.
2. MODERN MEDICINE MAKES diabetics tool that allows you to control and regulate blood sugar levels - regardless of ability pancreas to produce insulin.
In humans, all must be balanced, all its systems must operate within a certain framework, all vital signs - including blood sugar - must be within certain limits.This is achieved by the feedback that exists between the effects on the body and the response to this action;and each of our body is actually a subtle and complex device implementing this feedback.A simple example: we have moved from step to run, we spend more energy, and immediately became the heart beat faster and the lungs require larger volumes of air.But in this case, we need not only air;as a result of run we are hungry, and we need more food.
similar regulation characteristic of feedback systems, implements and pancreas.Let's see how this happens in a healthy person, the presentation of the graph illustrating the
morning, the blood contains a relatively small amount of sugar (so-called "sugar on an empty stomach") and small (basic) insulin.Low blood sugar causes the sensation of hunger, and people breakfasting - assume at 7am.Of course, in addition to protein foods he eats bread, containing carbohydrates, drink coffee or tea with sugar or something sweet.As a result, the concentration of glucose in the blood, and this signal starts the pancreas to produce insulin, (as shown in Fig. 1.3).Insulin facilitates entry of glucose into cells, and its blood level is reduced rather rapidly.At 12 o'clock people feel hungry again - it's time to lunch.He eats, and everything is repeated again, pinch of sugar, the release of a new portion of insulin, lowering sugar.Similar processes are repeated at 18 o'clock (in the afternoon) and 22 hours (after dinner).It is possible, of course, a different power scheme: Breakfast - eight in the morning, lunch - at two o'clock and dinner - at nine in the evening, but the essence remains the same: a healthy human pancreas responds in all cases is the same - the release of the necessary portions of the insulin.At the same time a healthy person can eat anything (including - many sweets) may go hungry all day without unpleasant consequences may overeat.In the latter case, the cells will have redundant power, starts to form adipose tissue, and our healthy person will not be so healthy.
In the next article we will look at what happens to glucose in the body of a diabetic, and we will continue the analysis of the normal process of metabolism.Insulin - a protein hormone immediate action;This means that in the beta cells, there is always a supply of insulin, which is released into the blood for a few minutes and then starts to lower blood sugar.Then, depending on the level of blood sugar, the beta cells begin to synthesize insulin in required amounts.There is a special unit to measure the amount of insulin, which we will call hereinafter simply insulin units or units;also there is a standard unit for measuring the amount of glucose in the blood - millimoles per liter, or mmol / L.We will meet later with some more units of various sizes, so let's repeat once again, and as it should, remember:
Unit - as indicated by insulin unit
mmol / L - as indicated by the unit, by which measure the amount of glucose in the blood
In healthy adult human insulin total amount accumulated in the islets of the pancreas, is about 200 U, while the rate of insulin synthesis - about 40-50 units per day.Beta cells produce insulin so that for every kilogram of body weight, on average, by 0.5-0.6 Unit.It averages summarizing performance, but during the day production rate (or secretion) of insulin varies greatly - from 0.25 U per hour to 2 units per hour in the first place, depending on blood glucose.As we have noted, the food, the concentration of sugar in the blood, insulin secretion is faster - that is excess glucose intensifies the work of the beta cells.
Now we indicate the quantitative characteristics of the sugar content in the blood of a healthy person (if blood is taken from a finger):
Fasting: from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L
Two hours after meals: 4,4 to 7.8 mmol / L
night (2-4 am): from 3.9 to 5.5 mmol / L
These are the indicators that need to be guided diabetics - especially those who are ill with diabetesa child at a young age or during pregnancy.In the future we will come back again and again to these figures, and now we note two important points:
1. INSULIN - Home of the hormones that regulate the metabolism of the human body.
2. VALUE ABOVE blood sugar of 7.8 mmol / L are undesirable, and higher than 10.0 mmol / l are given in-term complications of diabetes - is said to "work" for complications.