In this paper, we consider two points related to the liver and kidneys.
liver - a wonderful organ;Firstly, it is like a "toxicological laboratories" of the body, where all possible neutralize harmful substances and, secondly, has a great capacity to recover;Figuratively speaking, the liver is able to bring itself to the normal state - if it is not struck by chronic disease (such as hepatitis).This is important; diabetic sometimes have to take drugs that affect the liver, but after the course of treatment quickly restored its function.The liver is the "warehouse" or "depot" of sugar;about 60% of glucose entering the body of a person at rest is converted into glycogen and stored in liver "in reserve" - in case where the concentration of sugar in the blood drop dramatically and it will need to "add".For diabetics it is the first line of defense in protecting against hypoglycemic, ie abnormally low blood sugar.Recall that, in addition to the liver, muscle and fat tissue also have reserves, the abilit
kidneys in our body are a kind of "treatment plant."Kidneys are penetrated by many small capillaries, the blood flowing to them from all organs of the body, and thus, if a substance contained in blood in too large an amount, it is output via the kidneys in the urine.Under normal circumstances, when the blood sugar level does not exceed a certain value, no glucose excreted in the urine.Blood flows through the kidney is filtered by the so-called "primary urine," and then all the required substances are absorbed back into the bloodstream through the capillary walls.But when the blood glucose concentration is above a certain threshold (it is called "renal threshold"), the kidneys secrete an active sugar, and it will go away with the urine.
What is the value of the renal threshold?In principle, it is different in different people, ranging from secondhand mmol / L (low renal threshold) to 11 mg / dL (high renal threshold).There are, however, the average characteristics:
for children and adolescents renal threshold is usually equal to 9 mmol / l, and for adults - 10 mmol / L.Thus, the presence of sugar in urine can judge the content of sugar in the blood.In the future we will deal more with the blood and urine for sugar, as long as we note the following circumstances:
1. If there is no sugar in the urine, it means that the glucose concentration in the blood was below the renal threshold - ieis less than 10 mmol / l.
2. If the urine has a little bit of sugar, it means that the concentration of glucose in the blood for a short time was above the renal threshold.
3. If there is a lot of urine sugar, it means that the glucose concentration in the blood for a long time was above the renal threshold.
terms "bit" and "many" will be specified in subsequent articles, where we will talk about how to control diabetes, the various analyzes and applied to this device.
concluding article will give a brief list of terms we have mentioned, to which the reader need to quickly get used to:
IDDM - insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, or diabetes type 1.
NIDDM - insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or diabetes type 2.
INSULIN - a protein hormone produced by the pancreas and regulates blood sugar.
GLUCOSE - grape sugar, a monosaccharide;namely the sugar contained in the human blood.
U - unit amount of insulin.
mmol / l - a unit of measurement of the concentration of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
SUGAR fasting - the concentration of glucose in the blood in the morning, before breakfast;normal value - from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l.
hypoglycemia - abnormally low blood sugar.
Hyperglycemia - abnormally high blood sugar levels.
renal threshold - the concentration of sugar in the blood, from which the sugar is excreted in the urine;usually 9-10 mmol / l.