Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes) is a chronic disease in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.Insulin - a hormone needed to convert sugar (glucose) in energy.
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but is usually detected in childhood or adolescence.This is - a very common disease in Russia, and the data show that one out of 500 children born in the country, ill with type 1 diabetes.In general, it is 5-10% of all cases of diabetes.
been many hypotheses about what causes type 1 diabetes , but still do not fully known.Today, we do not treat the disease.However, great strides have been made for home monitoring and treatment of diabetes.
To understand type 1 diabetes, you need to know what the glucose and its role in the body. Glucose - the main source of energy used by all body tissues.For all of them to live, glucose needs to enter the cell.This requires the hormone insulin.Insulin has the ability to enter cells and glucose helps proc
Insulin is produced in the pancreas and is released at a time when the level of glucose in the blood is high.In type 1 diabetes the body is unable to produce insulin and therefore glucose levels remain very high.Normally, the reason that the body does not make insulin, is that the immune system destroys the diabetic insulin-producing cells.In others, the reason may be genetic or may be associated with a viral infection.Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, the risk of having the disease increases if the child has a parent or sibling with the disease.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually appear suddenly.The disease can begin with different features, so parents should be alert and well informed regarding the disease to determine its early stages.Symptoms may include:
- a high level of blood sugar
- high levels of sugar in the urine
- frequent urination
- excessive hunger
- weight loss
- blurred vision
- nausea and vomiting
- abdominal pain
- weakness and fatigue
- irritability and mood swings
diagnosis of diabetes includes several basic tests that include random checks of blood sugar level and test your blood sugar on an empty stomach.Typically, a blood sample is taken and measured fasting blood sugar.Normal fasting glucose is between 3,9-5,5 mmol / l.If the fasting glucose level is greater than 7 mmol / l, the suspected diagnosis of diabetes.Additional tests may include detecting antibodies to insulin and the presence of ketones in the urine.
Current treatments for type 1 diabetes
Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to devastating complications, including high blood sugar, low blood sugar levels, intense thirst, frequent urination, nausea, blurred vision, fatigue, diabetic ketoacidosis , lethargy, coma, convulsions and even death.
Long-term complications of diabetes type 1 develop if blood sugar is not controlled for a long period.Complications are serious and rarely reversible, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage, and diabetic foot .
There is only one cure type 1 diabetes, insulin is a daily .
There is absolutely no replacement. treatment of type 1 diabetes - life blood sugar control, insulin injections, diet and regular exercise .The goal is to maintain blood glucose within normal limits.Tighter control of blood sugar levels can reduce the risk of diabetes-related heart attack and stroke by more than 50 percent.
No matter what type of insulin used, monitoring the blood glucose level is essential.Careful control - the only way to make sure your blood sugar remains within the target range. Type 1 diabetes - very fragile and unpredictable condition, and blood glucose levels can depend on:
- other diseases
- physical exercise
- menstrual cycle
insulin is life-saving for patients with type 1 diabetes.Today, there are plenty of insulin to be administered on a daily basis.Many types of insulin are available, including fast-acting insulin, long-acting insulin and intermediate versions.Inhaled Insulin (Exubera) is now also available and is fast acting.However, caution should be exercised, since recent studies indicate that this may lead to low sugars in some patients.
Diabetes also has a profound effect on the gut and slows down the bowel.Many diabetic patients complain of constipation and feeling bloated.Thus, some people may need medications (e.g., Reglan) to help the intestine.
only potential cure for type 1 diabetes is a pancreas transplant.However, of all organ transplants, pancreas transplantation and islet cells have the lowest success.And even after a successful transplant must take immunosuppressive drugs for life that are associated with numerous side effects that are worse than the diabetes.
was made stem cell transplantation in several patients, and short-term results were excellent.However, the procedure involves the adoption of a high risk of some drugs to suppress the immune system to ensure that the stem cells.
Nutritional therapies for type 1 diabetes
Given that diabetes is a disease of uncontrolled blood sugar, diabetics have to pay special attention to your diet. Diet - an integral component of diabetes treatment and self-control.However, there are many misconceptions about nutrition and diabetes.Despite the fact that there is such a thing as a diabetic diet.
Diabetics need to reduce intake of fat, mainly saturated fats, which are known to worsen diabetes and makes it difficult to control blood glucose.Most fats have an adverse effect on the action of insulin.Some nutritionists recommend consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, so they are useful for the long term treatment of diabetes.
Recent studies also show that there is a reduced risk of developing diabetes with increased consumption of whole grains and fiber.Moderate amounts of alcohol consumption has recently been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and improve glucose control.Nevertheless, I recommend alcohol consumption as a therapy can lead to the aggravation of social problems associated with alcohol, not to mention the harmful effects on the liver.
best way to deal with diabetes, be smart in choosing products that suppress not only sugar, but also help to control weight gain and cholesterol reduction.This can be achieved by changing to a diet with fewer calories and fats;and eating fresh fruits, vegetables, seafood and legumes instead of red meat.
Diabetics should try to eat a healthy diet, which receives at least;20% of the daily calories from protein, 30% or less of the fat and the rest of carbohydrates.
When it comes to alcohol consumption, there are no rules about how many diabetics can drink.Alcohol is known to lower blood sugar, thus it is necessary to consume meals.But everything in moderation, diabetics do not have to treat diabetes in a manner and at the same time become an alcoholic.Be aware that some wine and liqueurs have a very high sugar content.
Because diabetes increases the risk of heart disease , diabetics must take every effort to control cholesterol.There are drugs to lower cholesterol, but the best therapy - Training .
Diabetes does not mean not to enjoy a meal.In moderation, almost all kinds of food can be used for diabetics.In addition, many people with diabetes try herbal remedies to try to control their blood sugar, but dietary therapies are often more secure, so some people are turning to mineral supplements instead of grass.
One mineral that shows the broad prospects for diabetics is chromium.Studies have shown that chromium is the ability to control blood glucose.Some patients have benefited from additions of chromium, but it's still not a magic pill.The current recommended dose of chromium, 200 micrograms taken three times a day.
best advice for all people affected by diabetes is that there is no indication that the majority of minerals or elements controlled diabetes.If you eat a well-balanced diet with fruits and vegetables, no other supplements may not be necessary.